Vietnamese EFL Teachers’ Perceptions and Practices of Reflective Teaching as a Tool for Professional Development

  • Duong Minh Tuan Nam Can Tho University, Can Tho City. Viet Nam
Keywords: Perceptions, teacher development, Practices, Reflective teaching


Growing professionally is considered a crucial goal that language teachers may wish to achieve in their teaching careers. Although tools for professional development can be varied in different contexts, reflective teaching as an essential and ongoing job is likely to be among the most common ones. The contributions of reflection on pursuing teacher professional development have been proved in numerous studies. However, research on the views and implementation of such a tool by EFL teachers in the Vietnamese context is insufficient. To narrow this gap, this descriptive study was conducted to investigate Vietnamese EFL teachers’ perceptions and practices of reflective teaching as a tool for teacher professional development. A mixed-methods design was employed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data for the study. Specifically, quantitative data were obtained through a questionnaire, and qualitative data were attained using a semi-structured interview. As regards participants, twenty-five university EFL teachers in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam participated in this study. The results indicated that the participants held positive perceptions towards reflective teaching and perceived it to be “very significant” to teacher professional development. Nevertheless, it was found that their overall level of reflective practices was identified as “average”. By comparison, a statistically significant difference between the participants’ perceptions and practices of reflective teaching was observed. The results also showed that the participants’ strategies of reflecting on their teaching practices were not diverse, with sharing classroom experiences with colleagues and conducting peer observation being the popularly used ones.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Duong Minh Tuan, Nam Can Tho University, Can Tho City. Viet Nam

Duong Minh Tuan is currently a lecturer of English at Nam Can Tho University, Vietnam. He obtained a Master’s Degree in TESOL from Can Tho University. His research interests include EFL pronunciation acquisition and instruction, English teaching methods, and teacher professional development.


Akbari, R., Behzadpoor, F., & Dadvand, B. (2010). Development of English language teaching reflection inventory. International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 38(2), 211-227.

Ansarin, A., Farrokhi, F., & Rahmani, M. (2015). Iranian EFL teachers’ reflection levels: The role of gender, experience, and qualifications. The Asian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 140-155.

Baleghizadeh, S. & Javidanmehr, Z. (2014). Exploring teachers’ reflectivity and their sense of self-efficacy. E-International Journal of Educational Research, 5(3), 19-38.

Brookfield, S. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San-Francisco, USA: Jossey-Bass.

Burhan-Horasanlı, E. & Ortaçtepe, D. (2016). Reflective practice-oriented online discussions: A study on EFL teachers’ reflection-on, in and for-action. Teaching and Teacher Education, 59, 372-382.

Cholifah, A. N., Asib, A., & Suparno, S. (2020). In-service EFL teachers engagement in reflective practice: What tools do in-service teachers utilize to reflect their teaching?. Pedagogy: Journal of English Language Teaching, 8(1), 24-33.

Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston, USA: D.C. Heath & Company Publishers.

Dikilitaş, K. (2015). Teacher research for instructors. In S. Borg (Ed.), Professional development for English language teachers: Perspectives from higher education in Turkey, (pp.27-33). Ankara: British Council, Turkey.

Faghihi, G., & Anani Sarab, R. (2016). Teachers as reflective practitioners: A survey on Iranian English teachers’ reflective practice. Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 34(4), 57-86. 10.22099/jtls.2016.3659.

Fakazli, M., & Gönen, K. (2017). Reflection on reflection: EFL university instructors’ perceptions on reflective practice. Journal of Education, 32(3), 708-726. 10.16986/HUJE.2017025118.

Farrell, T. (1999). Understanding language teaching. Singapore: Institute of Education.

Farrell, T. S. (2015). Reflective language teaching: From research to practice. London, England: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Ferdowsi, M., & Afghari, A. (2015). Audio-recording as a stimulus for reflection in teachers’ performance. International Journal of Educational Investigation, 2(6), 1-9.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Huyn, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th Ed.). New York, USA: Mc Graw-Hill Humanities.

Gupta, T., Shree, A., & Mishra, L. (2019). Reflective teaching as a strategy for effective instruction. Educational Quest-An International Journal of Education and Applied Social Sciences, 10(1), 37-43.

Kömür, S., & Gün, S. (2016). English language teachers’ reflective practices for understanding their teaching processes. Journal of Language Teaching and Learning, 6(2), 14-27.

Kramer, M. (2018). Promoting teachers’ agency: Reflective practice as transformative disposition. Reflective Practice, 19(2), 211-224.

Li, H. (2008). Assessing EFL teachers’ reflective thinking: A case study of two in-service secondary school teachers. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 3(1), 36-44.

Mathew, P., Mathew, P., & Peechattu, P. J. (2017). Reflective practices: A means to teacher development. Asia Pacific of Contemporary Education and Communication Technology, 3(1), 126-131.

Moradkhani, S. (2019). EFL teachers’ perceptions of two reflection approaches. ELT Journal, 73(1).

Motallebzadeh, K., Ahmadi, F., & Hosseinnia, M. (2018). The relationship between EFL teachers’ reflective practices and their teaching effectiveness: A structural equation modeling approach. Cogent Psychology, 5(1), 1-9.

Nguyen, M. B. (2011). How teachers perceive the ongoing influence of a portfolio on reflection: A case study. MA thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.

Nguyen, N., Trinh, L., & Vo, B. (2015). Reflection - an effective means of teachers’ professional development. Journal of Science, Can Tho University, 41(C),97-101.

Nguyen, P. (2017). TT-SET augmented with POT: A structured procedure for academics’ reflection. Proceedings of the Fifth International Open TESOL Conference, 490-505.

Pennington, C. (1992). Reflecting on teaching and learning: A developmental focus for the second language classroom. Perspectives on Second Language Teacher Education. In C. R. Jack & L. Charles (Eds.), Reflective teaching in second language classrooms, (pp.47-65). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Qing, X. U. (2009). Reflective teaching - an effective path for EFL teacher’s professional development. Canadian Social Science, 5(2), 35-40.

Rahimi, M., & Weisi, H. (2018). Reflective practice, self-efficacy and research practice of EFL teachers: Examining possible relationships. Issues in Educational Research, 28(3), 756-780.

Roberts, J. (1998). Language teacher education. London, England: Arnold.

Sunra-La Sunra, L., Haryanto, H., & Nur, S. (2020). Teachers’ reflective practice and challenges in an Indonesian EFL secondary school classroom. International Journal of Language Education, 4(2), 289-300.

Tabassi, F., Ghanizadeh, A., & Beigi, P. G. (2020). EFL Teachers’ reflective teaching: A study of its determinants, consequences, and obstacles. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 51(3), 201-218.

Wallace, J. (1998). Action research for language teachers. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

How to Cite
Tuan, D. M. (2021). Vietnamese EFL Teachers’ Perceptions and Practices of Reflective Teaching as a Tool for Professional Development. REiLA : Journal of Research and Innovation in Language, 3(3), 170-180.
Abstract viewed = 116 times
PDF downloaded = 105 times