Autonomous Learning among EFL Undergraduate Students in Selected Private Indonesian Islamic University: Voices and Activities

Keywords: Private university, EFL undergraduate students, Autonomous learning, Voices and activities, Mixed method study, Descriptive statistical testing


Learner autonomy has recently been recognised as an essential component of changes in higher education. The word 'LA' can be misunderstood because it may be viewed differently in various settings. Hence, this study explores whether the students at higher levels of education in Indonesia have better perceptions and efforts to enhance their autonomous learning. Questionnaires and interviews were asked with EFL students in collecting the data. The study sample consisted of 95 students randomly selected from FTTE Islamic University of Riau. This study applied a mix-method, and descriptive statistical testing was employed to analyse the data and determine the research questions. NVivo 12 explored how the students perceived the autonomous learning process. The result showed that the EFL learners mostly perceive autonomous learning as independent learning under one’s target, involving personal learning styles and strategies with the teacher's assistance. A significance value (p) was obtained at the time of initiation, monitoring, and evaluation of the data, respectively 0.286; 0.533; 0.744. So, all the p-value was >0.05. It requires no significant effort in initiating, monitoring, and evaluating among different levels. In addition, there was no significant difference between the efforts of the initiating, monitoring, and evaluating activity performed among EFL learners either in the second, fourth, or sixth level. This point is that EFL learners are not independent in selecting when and how to initiate, monitor, and evaluate autonomous learning. So, this fact shows us that the higher semester level did not guarantee better effort toward autonomous learning activities.



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Author Biographies

Khulaifiyah Khulaifiyah, Universitas Islam Riau, Pekanbaru, Indonesia

Khulaifiyah is a PhD holder in English Education from Universitas Negeri Malang- Indonesia.  Currently, she engaging in research on autonomous learning issues and learning strategies for developing EFL learners’ self-efficacy. She presently resides in Pekanbaru, and works as the  teacher and an Associate Professor at Universitas Islam Riau, in the Department of Education. She has published numerous papers both in international and national journal in the field of EFL, CLIL and Education field especially in character building.

Mirjam Anugerahwati, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia

Mirjam Anugerahwati is a senior faculty member in the Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang. She started her career in the department in 1990, so she has now been teaching there for 32 years. She earned her Master’s degree in Applied Linguistics from the University of Queensland, Australia, in 1998, and her Doctoral degree from Universitas Negeri Malang in 2009. Her main interests include TEFL, Curriculum Development, Teaching English to Young Learners, Cross Cultural Understanding, and Character Education. She has written numerous papers on those topics for conferences, both in national and international levels. She has also written books (mainly modules for the Open University), and conducted research on those topics.

Utami Widiati, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia

Utami Widiati is a professor of English language at Universitas Negeri Malang and Dean of  Faculty Letter.  She has published numerous papers in many national and international reputable journals. She is also served as an editor-in-chief of the Teaching of English Foreign Language in Indonesia (Teflin Journal).


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How to Cite
Khulaifiyah, K., Anugerahwati, M., & Widiati, U. (2022). Autonomous Learning among EFL Undergraduate Students in Selected Private Indonesian Islamic University: Voices and Activities. REiLA : Journal of Research and Innovation in Language, 4(2), 232-242.
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