Influnce of Using Photographs in Descriptive Writing to the Students of Nursing

  • fini widya fransiska fini author
Keywords: Influence, photographs, writing


The objective of research was to know whether there was any influnces of using photographs in descriptive writing to the students of nursing.  In fact, many nurse students still find difficulties in writing. They still find difficulties in expressing what they want to write and how to write. In overcoming those problems, in certain condition to interest them, teacher can use many media to help them producing good written. One of the media is the using of photograph in teaching learning writing. Photograph can make students find ideas in writing and it can help them to make descriptive text when they look the picture. The population was taken from the nurse students of Universitas Muhammadiyah Pringsewu. The writer took two classes for experiment and control. The data collecting technique used the writing test. The teacher gave some topics and the students had to make composition by choosing one of the topic. The analyzing the data, the writer used ttest. After calculated the data, the writer found that was use photographs was x 2ratio = 6.01, and that was without use photographs was x2ratio = 3.93. It can conclude there was any influence of using photographs in descriptive writing to the students of nursing. The writer suggested to English teacher should be use photographs as a media in teaching writing.


Download data is not yet available.


Anderson, Mark & Anderson, Kathy. 2003. Text Types in English 2. Auatralia: Macmillan Education Australia Pty Ltd.

Ann Kipfer, Barbara. 2001. Random House Webster’s College Dictionary. New York: Random House.

Arif S Sadimin et, al. 2009. Media Pendidikan: Pengertian, Pengembangan, dan Pemanfaatannya. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada.

Ary, Donald & Sorensen, C. 2010. Introduction to Research in Education (8th edition). Canada: Cengage Learning.

Azhar Arsyad. 2009. Media Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada.

Bowker, Natiline. 2007. Academic Writing: a Guide to Tertiary Level Writing. Massey University: Student Life Palmersthon North.

Brown, H. 2001. Teaching by Principles and Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. England: Prentice Hall, Inc.

--------. 2007. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New York: Longman.

Byrne, Donn. 1995. Teaching Writing Skills. New York: Longman.

Creswell, J.W. 2008. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting And Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. New Jersey: Pearson International Edition

Crowl, K. Thomas. 1996. Fundamentals of Educational Research. United States of America: Times Mirror Higher Education Group.

Dullay, Heidi et al. 1982. Language Two. New York: Oxford University Press.

Djiwandon, Soenardi. 2011. Tes Bahasa; Pegangan bagi Pengajar Bahasa. Jakarta: Indeks.

Endang Fauziati. 2010. Teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL). Surakarta: PT. Era Pustaka Utama.

Ehrenhaft, George. 2006. ACT 2007. 14th Edition. USA: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc

Fergenson, Laraine and Nickerson, Marie-Louse. 1998. All in One: Basic Writing Text, Workbook, and Reader. New Jersey: Marie-Louse Prentice Hall.

Finocchiaro, Mary. 1989. Teaching English as Foreign Language. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gebhardt, R.C. and Rodrigues,D. 2000. Writing Processes and Intention. Lexington: D.C. Health and Company.

Greene, Ellin. 1996. Storytelling. Art and Technique. Third Edition. USA: Greenwood.

Harmer, J. 2007. The Practice of English Language Teaching. London: Longman

--------. 2004. How to Teach Writing. London: Pearson Education Limited.

Harris, David. 1996. Testing English as a Second Language. London: MC Graw- Hill Book Company.

Heaton, J.B. 1987. Language Testing. London: Longman.

Hornby, A.S. 2005. Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hughes, Arthur. 2003. Testing for Language Teachers. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Hutchinson, Emily. 2005. Descriptive writing: Development and production. United States of America: Times Saddleback Laurel Associates Educational Group.

Hyland, Ken. 2003. Second Language Writing. New York: Cambridge University Press.

--------. 2009. Teaching and Researching Writing. Great Britain: Pearson Education.

Jaya, Alexander Mongot, et al. 2007. English Revolusioner. Jepara: Mawas Press.

Kimberlin, Carole L and Winterstein, Almut G. 2008. Validity and Reliability of Measurement Instruments Used in Research. Florida: Am J Health-Syst Pharm.

Levine, Melvin. 1993. Developmental Variation and Learning Disorders.

Retrieved from her wibsite: Accessed on Monday, April 27, 2014, at 20:00

Liderman, Erika 1983. A Rhetoric for Writing Teaching. USA: Oxford of Chicago Press.

Lynch, Brian K. 1996. Language Program Evaluation: Theory and Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Marlow, Patrick and Siekmann, Sabine. 2013. Community of Practice. USA: The University of Arizona Press.

Mary, Fitzpatrick. 2005. Engaging writing: Paragraphs and Essays. London: Longman.

Mckay, and Penny. 2006. Assessing Young Language Learners. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nasser , Saleh Al-Mansour & Ra’ed Abdulgader, Al-Shorman. 2011. The effect of teacher’s storytelling aloud on the reading comprehension of Saudi

elementary stage students. Journal of King Saud University – Languages and Translation, 23, page 69–76

Nation, I.S.P. 2009. Teaching ESL/EFL Reading and Writing. New York: Routledge.

Nunan, David. 2003. Practical English Language Teaching. Singapore: Mc Graw Hill.

-------. 2005. Research Methods in Language Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2006. Writing Academic English (4th Edition). New York: Pearson Education, Inc.

Ramelan. 1994. Introduction to Linguistic Analysis. Semarang: IKIP Semarang Press.

Raimes, Ann. 1983. Techniques in Teaching Writing. China: Oxford University Press.

Richards, J.C. & Renandya. 2003. Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press

Sekaran, Uma. 2002. Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Aproach. New York: John Wiley & Sons, inc.

Selinger, H.W and Shohamy,E. 1989. Second Language Research Method. Oxford: Orford University.

Seyed,Jalal Abdolmanafi-Rokni & Masoud,Qarajeh. 2014. Digital storytelling in EFL classrooms: The effect on the oral performance. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 2(4), page 252-257

Suharsimi, Arikunto. 2010. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.

Sugiyono. 2013. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R&D. Bandung: ALFABETA

Spencer, L. 2005. A step by step Guide to Issue Based Writing. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group.

Terrible, C. 1996. Language Teaching. A Scheme for Teacher Education: Writing. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ur, P. 1991. A Course in Learning Teaching: Practice and Theory. Cambridge: University Press

Yudantoro, Elang. 2010. Rangkuman bahasa inggris SMA. Jakarta: Gagas Media.

How to Cite
fini, fini widya fransiska. (2020). Influnce of Using Photographs in Descriptive Writing to the Students of Nursing. ELT-Lectura, 7(1), 20-31.
Abstract viewed = 233 times
PDF downloaded = 150 times